1.Why pursue compliance with the German bicycle lighting equipment testing standard (StVZO) for bicycle front lights?+

Among the few countries worldwide that regulate bicycle front lights, Germany has the strictest regulations. Therefore, in the minds of many cyclists, "complying with German standards equals high safety and efficiency," and it's also a goal pursued by various major brands.
What are the testing standards for German bicycle lighting equipment?
1. Bicycle lights must not have a flashing function. The front light of a bicycle is for illumination purposes, and flashing can actually lead to visual fatigue.
2. Bicycle lights must have a low battery indicator.
3. During testing conditions, the bicycle light should be continuously illuminated for one hour before testing begins, and there should be no low battery warning during this time.
4. The design of the brightness cut-off line and the distribution of light for bicycle lights should be even to avoid excessive concentration that may affect the visibility of oncoming cyclists. Additionally, German road safety regulations also require that bicycle lighting equipment should provide a minimum illuminance of 10 Lux at a distance of at least 10 meters.
[Information sourced from BICYCLE CLUB Magazine Issue 47]

2.What are the units of brightness?+

The commonly used units of luminance include "candela," "lumen," and "lux." When choosing bicycle lighting equipment based solely on numerical values, there might be discrepancies between the chosen brightness and the expected lighting effect. The differences among these units are explained as follows:

Candela (cd):
The total amount of light emitted within a specific solid angle (cone) from a light source. This unit indicates the "intensity" of light that can be perceived as "glare" when viewed directly from the front.
Disadvantage: Cannot indicate how much light reaches a specific distance.

Lumen (lm):
The total amount of light emitted by a specific light source. A higher value indicates more light and higher brightness.
Disadvantage: Cannot indicate the direction of light output.

Lux (lx):
The amount of light received per unit area at a specific distance. It is a reliable and comparable value.
Disadvantage: Cannot indicate the uniformity of the projected light field in the illuminated area or color deviations.

Illuminance / Illuminated Surfaces:
0.0001 lux / New moon, overcast night sky (starry night)
0.002 lux / New moon, atmospheric reflection in a clear night sky
0.27-1.0 lux / Full moon, clear night sky
5 lux / Streetlights
80 lux / Buildings, highways, restroom lighting
320-500 lux / Office lighting
400 lux / Sunrise or sunset in a clear sky
1000 lux / Overcast sky
10000-25000 lux / Sunny day (indirect sunlight)
32000-100000 lux / Direct sunlight

[Information sourced from BICYCLE CLUB Magazine Issue 47]

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